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Literature Review Thursday

November 17, 2011

This week’s article was published just a few months ago in the Nutrition Journal and compares two different diets on weight loss and health parameters. I found it very interesting because the two diets they chose to study were a high protein diet (HPro) and a high fiber diet (HFib). Roughly 70 women ranging from slightly overweight to obese were randomly assigned to the HPro or HFib diet for 8 weeks. The researchers calculated calories for the diets so that the subjects would lose 1-2 lbs per week with the following guidelines:

HPro Diet

HFib Diet


Food group

Servings per day

Food group

Servings per day


Beans and legumes
(1/2 cup cooked)

1

Breads cereals & grains
(~15 g carbs)

3

High-fiber breads, cereals & grains
(~15 g carbs)

6

Lean protein foods
(100 g raw weight)

3

Lean protein foods
(100 g raw weight)

1

Low-fat milk and dairy foods
(1 cup)

2

Low-fat milk and dairy foods
(1 cup)

2

Vegetables
(1/2 cup)

5

Vegetables
(1/2 cup)

5

Fruit
(medium size)

2

Fruit
(medium size)

2

Fats and oils
(teaspoon)

3

Fats and oils
(teaspoon)

3

Indulgence foods and alcohol (~100 calories)

2 per week

Indulgence foods and alcohol (~100 calories)

2 per week


Te Morenga et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:40   doi:10.1186*edited for clarity by CakeNutrition.com

One concept I like already, is that once the subjects received their diet instructions, they were left alone for 8 weeks to follow the diet on their own. The high compliance (nearly 90% of the subjects followed their diet for the full 8 weeks) shows that these weight loss diets can be realistically used by the average person. These subjects weren’t stuck in a lab or force fed foods with exact amounts of calories and nutrients, but rather, just given instructions and continued life as normal.  Notice how “indulgence foods and alcohol” is accounted for at the bottom of the recommendations and were not removed completely. What’s important here is those food were limited to 2 servings per week.

*For those of you struggling to stick to a diet plan, try accounting for your sweet tooth like this study does. Sometimes limiting “bad” foods makes a diet easier to follow than cutting them out altogether.

Key Points about the Diets

 High Protein Diet:

-increased sources of animal protein (led to slightly increased saturated fat intake)

High Fiber Diet:

-higher amount of carbohydrates in the diet

Both Diets:

-stress a balanced diet

-include proper amounts of fruits and vegetables

Results

Both Diets:

-lost weight

-high percentage of weight lost came from body fat

-reduced LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood sugar and blood pressure

– maintained lean body mass (muscle) during dieting

Interesting Results from Each Diet

High Protein Diet:

-lost more weight AND body fat (~2 lbs of fat) than high fiber diet

-had greater reduction in blood pressure

-showed many positive effects on hearth health despite higher intake of animal fat

High Fiber Diet:

-subjects reported less hunger and thought about food less than the high protein diet

-maintained the same amount of muscle as the high protein diet

-reduced fasting blood sugar even with increased carbohydrate intake

-easier to follow (only 2 subjects opted out of the study compared to 4 on the HPro diet)

Piece of Cake . . . Nutrition

 *Both high protein and high fiber diets are useful for weight loss as long as the total calories are reduced.

*High protein diet helped lose 2 lbs more body fat over 8 weeks

*High fiber diet reduced hunger and was easier to stay on for 8 weeks

*The diets in the chart are ~1,500 calories – try ‘em out if you want to drop a few pounds!

Te Morenga, Lisa A et al. “Comparison of high protein and high fiber weight-loss diets in women with risk factors for the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial.” Nutrition Journal 10 (2011): 40. Web. 17 Nov. 2011.

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